Top 10 Programming Languages To Learn in 2022

A programming communication is a type of communication that humans use to tell computers how...

A programming communication is a type of communication that humans use to tell computers how to do specific jobs. These languages produce programs that do specific tasks using a specific coding syntax. Programming software is a lucrative professional path. According to the poll, programming positions are anticipated to grow by 21% by 2028. According to Wikipedia, there are around 700 programming languages. As a result, picking which one to learn can be difficult.

To add on more confusion new and better programming languages are added to the list every year. But don’t worry we are here to rescue you. After taking into consideration career perceptive, future demands, business requirements, and features of different programming languages we are here with our list of ten programming languages.  

What is a Programming Language? 

A programming language is a method of communicating with computers by programmers (developers). Programming languages are made up of a collection of rules that allow string values to be transformed into various types of machine code, or graphical elements in the case of visual programming languages.

Generally speaking, a program is a set of instructions written in a particular language (C, C++, Java, Python) to achieve a particular task.

The Levels of Programming 

There exist several programming languages with their own specific purpose, with unique sets of keywords and syntaxes used to create instructions. Programming language vary in the level of abstraction and are classified into two categories:

  1. Low-level language
  2. High-level language

Low-Level Language

Low-level languages provide abstraction from the hardware and are represented in the binary form, i.e., 0 or 1 which are the machine instructions. Low-level languages are further classified as machine-level language and assembly level language.

High-Level Language

We can write programs that are independent of the type of computer using a high-level language. High-level languages are so termed because they are more similar to human language and can be easily understood, but they do necessitate paying attention to the logic of the situation. A compiler is required to convert a high-level language to a low-level one. Furthermore, high-level languages have the following benefits:

  • Easy to learn and maintain
  • Portable, i.e., they are machine-independent

This article presents the top 10 programming languages that are currently on the rise. Let’s see what technologies will be most popular in 2022!

1. Python

Python can be regarded as the future of programming languages. As per the latest statistics, Python is the main coding language for around 80% of developers. Python’s rich libraries make artificial intelligence, data science, and machine learning operations easier. Python is now popular and might be considered the king of programming languages. As a result, knowing this programming language in 2022 will ensure your success and development.

Difficulty level: Easy to learn. One of the best programming languages for beginners. 

Career prospects: Highest volume of job openings, strong average salary

Pros:

  • Creating and using classes and objects is easy thanks to OOP characteristics
  • Extensive library support
  • Focuses on code readability
  • Has the ability to scale even the most complex applications
  • Ideal for building prototypes and testing out ideas faster
  • Open-source with an ever-growing community support
  • Provides support for a multitude of platforms and systems
  • Very easy to learn and use

Cons:

  • Not suitable for mobile computing
  • Slower by virtue of being an interpreted programming language
  • The database access layer is somewhat immature
  • Threading isn’t good because of GIL (Global Interpreter Lock)

2. Javascript

Javascript is another candidate for best programming language to learn this year and one that many employers ask for. Especially in the field of web development, where it is used to make web sites interactive. The technology may also be used to create any type of software, not simply front-end web apps.

The problem is that finding a high-paying employment for such a popular language might be tough. It’s almost mandatory to learn it, especially in specific sectors. However, learning Javascript is a good idea for both front-end and back-end engineers.

The language isn’t too hard to learn, especially if you already have one or two others under your belt. It’s not a bad one to learn early in your career either.

Difficulty level: Easy

Career prospects: Excellent, as several startups use it

Pros:

  • Client-side JavaScript is very fast. It runs immediately within the web browser as there is no compilation required.
  • Makes a website’s interface richer
  • Highly versatile
  • Acts as the “programming language of the web”
  • Reduced website server demand by virtue of being client-side
  • Regular updates via the ECMA specification
  • Several add-ons, such as Greasemonkey, for extending functionality
  • Simple implementation
  • Plenty of resources and excellent community support
  • Used for building a diverse range of applications
  • Works exceptionally well with other programming languages

Cons:

  • Absence of copy or equivalent method
  • Allows only single inheritance
  • As the code executes on the user machine, many people choose to disable JavaScript due to the fear of being exploited for a malicious intent
  • Might be interpreted differently by different browsers

3. Go

Go was developed by Google in 2007 for APIs and web applications. Go has recently become one of the fastest-growing programming languages due to its simplicity, as well as its ability to handle multicore and networked systems and massive codebases.

The Go programming language, often known as Golang, was established to satisfy the needs of programmers working on huge projects. Because of its clear and modern structure and syntax familiarity, it has gained favor among many large IT organizations. Google, Uber, Twitch, and Dropbox are just a few of the companies that use Go as their programming language. Because of its agility and performance, Go is becoming increasingly popular among data scientists.

Difficulty level: Easy to moderate

Career prospects: A healthy amount of opportunities; best suited for those who know what they want their career to be

Pros:

  • Being a statically-typed language makes it more secure
  • Cleaner syntax makes it easier to learn
  • Comprehensive standard library offering a range of inbuilt functions for working with primitive types
  • Ideal for building SPAs (single-page applications)
  • Smart documentation
  • Very fast as it is compiled to machine code

Cons:

  • Absence of a virtual machine makes complex programs less efficient
  • Implicit interfaces
  • Lacks versatility
  • No GUI library
  • Underprivileged library support

4. Java

Java is one of the most popular programming languages used today. Because of its Write Once, Run Anywhere (WORA) characteristics, this general-purpose programming language, which is owned by Oracle Corporation, has become a standard for applications that can be utilized independent of platform (e.g., Mac, Windows, Android, iOS, etc.). As a result, Java is known for its portability across a wide range of systems, from ibm to smartphones. There are currently over 3 billion devices running Java-based applications.

Java is a popular programming language for online and application development, as well as big data. Several well-known websites, like Google, Amazon, Twitter, and YouTube, employ Java in their backends. It is also widely employed in a wide range of applications. Spring, Struts, and Hibernate are some of the most popular new Java frameworks. There are hundreds of ways to learn Java, thanks to the millions of Java developers around the world. Java programmers also have a large online community that helps each other solve problems.

Difficulty level: Easy to moderate

Career prospects: Excellent, as many large enterprises use it

Pros:

  • An abundance of open-source libraries
  • Automatic memory allocation and garbage collection
  • Follows the OOP paradigm
  • Has the stack allocation system
  • A high degree of platform independence thanks to the JVM feature
  • Highly secure due to the exclusion of explicit pointer and inclusion of a security manager responsible for defining the access of classes
  • Ideal for distributed computing
  • Offers a galore of APIs for accomplishing different tasks, such as database connection, networking, utilities, and XML parsing
  • Supports multithreading

Cons:

  • Absence of templates limits creating high-quality data structures
  • Expensive memory management
  • Slower than natively compiled programming languages, like C and C++

5. Swift

Swift almost exclusively appears on Apple products, of which there’s certainly a market for app developers. If Mac or iOS development is interesting to you, this language is something you’re definitely going to have to pick up.

The problem is that it isn’t a language that easily translates outside of this setting. It can be used on other devices, but it is primarily designed for Apple operating systems. If that isn’t your goal, learning this programming language might not be the ideal choice.

Still, Swift is a very fast and efficient coding language. Designed as an alternative to Objective-C, it has a lot of its best features and is also not a difficult starting language for beginners.

Difficulty level: Easy to moderate 

Career prospects: Excellent, especially as the iOS app field grows

Pros:

  • Automatic memory management prevents memory leaks
  • Backed by Apple
  • Better scalability allows easily adding functionalities to the product and/or bringing in additional developers
  • Easy to add new features
  • Encourages developers to write clean and readable code
  • English-like syntax makes it highly readable
  • Interoperable with Objective-C
  • It is possible to integrate Server-side Swift with any technology
  • Makes code sharing better and development process faster when used for both frontend and backend development
  • Very fast as compared to other popular programming languages, such as Objective-C and Python

Cons:

  • Limited community support and resources
  • Somewhat unstable due to being a relatively new arrival on the programming scene
  • No support for legacy projects; can be used only for iOS7 or later apps

6. Kotlin

Kotlin is a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) programming language. It’s short and sweet, and it’s simple to read and maintain. It has a secure and clever compiler and can run on a wide range of platforms. When Google stated in 2019 that Kotlin is now its preferred language for Android apps, it sparked a surge in interest in the programming language. It’s important to note that Google apps are written in Kotlin. If you want to work in Android app development, learning Kotlin in 2022 might be the best option.

Although it has a smaller community of software developers than Java, it is much more well-liked (almost 62% of programmers said they love this language) and better paid.

Some of the prominent features of Kotlin are:

  • Concise code and structured concurrency.
  • Enhanced security features.
  • Coding is approximately 20% less as compared to Java.
  • It is 100% interoperable.
  • Companies working on Kotlin are Pinterest, Uber, Trello, Amazon, etc.

7. C#

If C++ is interesting to you in theory, but too low level, old, and difficult to learn, C# may be worth trying instead. This object-oriented language is not as versatile, and in fact is primarily for application development.

It is, however, a lot easier to enter into. The purpose of C# is to be less complicated than popular app development languages such as C++ and Java. It takes care of a lot of things for you that other languages require you to code yourself, saving you time.

It’s also a great first language for new developers because it’s easy to pick up.

Difficulty level: Easy to moderate

Career prospects: Not quite as good as the others, as it isn’t quite as in demand

Pros:

  • As pointer types aren’t permitted, much safer than C and C++
  • Ability to work with shared codebases
  • Automatic scalable and updateable
  • Component-oriented, object-oriented programming language
  • Follows a syntax similar to the C programming language
  • Fully integrated with the .NET library
  • Ideal for all types of Windows development
  • Rich sets of library functions and data types
  • Supports type safety
  • Quick compilation and execution times

Cons:

  • Allows pointers in ‘unsafe’ blocks
  • Almost all variables are references and memory deallocation is implicit using a garbage collector
  • Offers less flexibility than C++
  • Requires decent effort and time to learn
  • Resolving errors requires serious expertise and knowledge

8. PHP

PHP is a general-purpose scripting language that will continue to gain popularity in the next years. It is among the first server-side language that can be embedded with HTML to add functionality to web pages. Due to the increasing online trend, PHP developers are in high demand. Some of the astonishing features are:

  • Simple and easy to learn.
  • Faster than other scripting languages
  • Highly secure to prevent threats and attacks.
  • Amazing websites like Facebook, Yahoo, and Wikipedia run on PHP.

Difficulty level: Easy

Career prospects: Excellent, with a large number of opportunities available

Pros:

  • Abundance of powerful frameworks
  • Easy to get started for making web pages
  • First-class debugging with Xdebug
  • Gigantic community support and a huge ecosystem
  • Lots of automation tools for testing and deploying applications
  • No scarcity of good automation tools for deployment and testing
  • Supports object-oriented and functional programming paradigms

Cons:

  • Developing websites completely in PHP is slower as compared to using other options
  • Lacks in terms of security
  • Poor error handling
  • Requires extensions to a greater extent

9. MATLAB

MATLAB is a statistical analysis tool that is utilized for fata analysis in a variety of sectors. MATLAB is also frequently utilized in the field of computer vision and image processing. This is ideal for anyone interested in machine learning and deep learning, computational finance, signal processing and communications, and a variety of other subjects.

Difficulty level: Easy to moderate

Career prospects: Great, as it used in several cutting-edge fields

Pros:

  • Eases developing scientific simulation thanks to a rich inbuilt library
  • Functionality can be extended greatly by adding toolboxes
  • High coding efficiency and productivity as it doesn’t require a compiler for execution
  • Ideal for developing scientific research applications
  • Matlab Coder allows converting code for using in other programming languages, such as C++, Java, and Python
  • Platform-independent

Cons:

  • Not free to use, requires purchasing a license
  • Not much application beyond the scope of numerical computing
  • Dealing with errors generated during cross-compilation requires extensive knowledge and experience
  • Slower due to being an interpreted programming language

10. R

R is one of the most widely used programming languages in machine learning and Big Data, alongside Python. Many companies, including Google and Facebook, use it. R is a prominent programming language for data analytics, therefore it’s frequently specified in job postings. A built-in library in the R language allows programmers to develop machine learning algorithms. This technology will surely be worth watching in 2022, given the growing popularity and need for AI solutions.

Difficulty level: Easy to moderate

Career prospects: Excellent

Pros:

  • Ability to run seamlessly on various operations systems
  • Active, growing community
  • Being open-source and free grants the ability to make tweaks as required
  • Comprehensive statistical analysis language
  • Highly extensible
  • Powerful package ecosystem

Cons:

  • Lacks security features
  • No strict programming guidelines
  • Poor memory management
  • Quality of some packages is subpar

So What is the Best Programming Language? 

Your decision on which programming language to learn will be affected by your professional objectives. If you want to master machine learning and deep learning, for example, you shouldn’t waste time learning Java or C#. We’ll go through some of the languages and what they’re used for to help you make this selection.

Python and JavaScript, two of the most popular programming languages, are popular among entrepreneurs. Django (Python), Flask (Python), and NodeJS (JavaScript) are popular backend frameworks for startups. These are the easiest programming languages to learn for beginners because they are both simple to master. Furthermore, there are various job openings for these positions on the market.

Java and PHP are commonly used in the corporate world. Many organizations use Spring (Java) and Codeigniter (PHP) as their web backend framework.

In the world of data analytics, R and MATLAB are widely used. These are the languages to learn if you want to work in data analytics or data science. Low-latency and scalable systems are best built with C/C++ and Golang.

With this, hopefully you have an answer to the question of which programming language to learn. Your goal should be to settle on a language and work on projects that have relevance to your career goals. It’ll take effort, but it’s also very rewarding!