Backend Developer Roadmap – A Beginners Guide

Backend development (also stylized as back-end or back-end development) is the skill that powers the web. Yet it does it modestly, without fanfare—allowing people to browse their favorite sites without even knowing about all the work put in by the backend developer or team.

Who is a Backend Developer?

Backend developer roadmap: Unlike the frontend developer, who takes care of the visible part of a site or app, the backend developer is a computer scientist who instead builds everything that is not seen but serves to make that site or application work. If we were to use the metaphor, the backend developer is the technician who builds the foundation and structure of a house, while the front is the architect who cares about the facades and how to manage the spaces and movements within the house. Building.

Backend development languages handle the ‘behind-the-scenes’ functionality of web applications. It’s code that connects the web to a database, manages user connections, and powers the web application itself. Backend development works in tandem with the front end to deliver the final product to the end-user.

In any case, the backend developer programs and writes code just like a normal computer developer, but his role is not “limited” only to sites and applications. Here on the ………… you can find amazing courses of Backend Web Developing.

Front-end Vs Backend Programming

Intuitively, the other side of backend development is the front end. 

The main difference is that, whereas backend developers create the functionality of a website, front-end programmers create and design the user interface, establishing how the site appears to visitors.

Backend web development establishes the underlying technology that allows websites to process user activities on the front end and produce accurate information.

Neither works without the other—you need the back end to make the front end work, and you need the front end so people can actually access and interact with the website. 

💰 Backend developers typically earn higher salaries than front-end developers, as back-end languages tend to be more technical. The average salary for a backend developer is $114,608, while front-end developers earn $100,966.

There are also full-stack developers, who can work with both front-end and back-end technologies. They’re the jack-of-all-trades of the programming world.

What Does a Backend Developer Do?

So what does a backend developer actually do in a typical workday? 

According to backend developer Ali Bayat in his blog article The Day in the Life of a Backend Developer, “Reflecting on a typical working day, I’d say I spend 50% of my time on project work, 20% in meetings, and on general communication, and the remaining 30% working on immediate requests and bugs.”

So, as a back end web developer, you might spend your day doing things like: 

  • Maintaining legacy applications (older applications that have already been built by other programmers)
  • Putting out fires (e.g., bugs, broken applications)
  • Attending meetings (to gather requirements for a project
  • Collaborate with front-end devs on a project, etc.)
  • Actually writing code for new applications/projects

So, while you will certainly be coding with back-end languages, don’t picture that as being the only thing you’ll do as a back-end web developer.

Programming Language to learn Backend

Programming Language to learn Backend

One of the essential skills to obtain a job interview in this sector is to demonstrate knowledge of computer programming languages, which is a bit like asking a candidate how many languages ​​besides Italian and English they can speak. To the point, that job offers are preceded by specific language. For example, a Java Backend developer is required to know the Java EE language and JavaScript in general (Node JS). Must know how to handle languages ​​in PHP or Visual Basic, Ruby, and Python. Again: C ++ backend developer indicates a position is open to those who know how to manage C ++ architectures. It is also good to keep up to date on the use of frameworks that is environments already prepared for programming, with methods such as Spring or Hibernate.

However, one of the activities that must be able to manage is that of creating and organizing digital databases conceived with systems such as Oracle or MySQL, or NoSQL, or MongoDB. This is because most companies already base their database on these models and when they hire a back-end they expect that as a professional they know how to enter and manage the related DBS.

Recommended Articles: 9 Popular Programming Languages For Backend Web Development

Skills A Backend Developer Needs

With the above-mentioned 2021 roadmap, it’s clear that backend development is a logical and technological aspect of the web app. As a result, we’ll go over the technologies and tools that are required to become a skilled backend developer.

1. Basic Internet, Operating System, and Frontend Knowledge

Backend development, like frontend development, requires knowledge of the fundamentals of the internet (such as how it works, what HTTP/HTTPS is, how to work with browsers, how DNS works, and what a domain name and hosting are).

After you’ve learned the internet, you’ll need to learn about operating systems in general, including memory management, terminal usage, OS operation, process management, threads and concurrency, basic terminal commands, I/O management, and networking fundamentals.

2. Programming language

Needless to say, a backend developer must learn a programming language to improve their coding skills. While Java is the recommended language to learn in backend development, you can also go for other languages like Javascript, C#, Python, Ruby, and PHP.

Recommended Articles: 9 Popular Programming Languages For Backend Web Development

3. Version Control System

A version control system (VCS) is a technology that helps frontend and backend developers collaborate and manage changes over time. It also tells you what kind of changes are made and who is responsible for them. In brief, a version control system increases the project’s speed by allowing engineers to collaborate, limiting the risk of errors, and even recovering the code in the event of an accident.

For backend development, you can use the following version control systems.

4. Database

A database is a brain that helps to make a web application dynamic in the context of a web application. The database is responsible for storing data, accepting queries, obtaining information, and returning the needed result to the web app whenever you search for a product or request logins.

Backend developers either use relational or NoSQL databases. Some of them are as follows:

Relational Databases

NoSQL Databases

You’ll need to know about a handful of the databases described above, as well as some basic database principles like ORMs, ACID, the N+1 problem, Transactions, Data Normalization, and Indexes.


APIs (Application Programming Interfaces) are a type of intermediate that allows services to communicate with one another. APIs are used by backend developers to connect different apps or services in order to give a better user experience on the frontend. You should be aware of the following APIs:

6. Caching

Caching is a technique for storing a copy of a resource in a cache (temporary storage location) and retrieving it fast when needed. The main goal of caching is to improve data retrieval performance while reducing the need to contact the slow-to-process underlying storage layer.

Here is a list of caching techniques and tools you should be aware of.


The process of checking the database or server-side of a web app is known as backend testing. The goal of backend testing is to determine the database layer’s efficiency while guaranteeing that it is free of data corruption, deadlocks, and data loss. Backend developers utilize the following testing methods:

8. Code Analysis Tools

Code analysis is a technique for debugging and analyzing programs to ensure that they run smoothly. To understand more about different methods and tools for analysis, check out our previous blogs: Code Analysis Tools: Code’s Journey From Developers to Testers and Static Code Analysis Tools For Java To Provide Quality Measurements.

Some of the tools used for code analysis are:

9. Architectural Patterns

An architectural pattern is a reusable solution to repeated issues in software development. The following are some of the most regularly used architectural patterns:

  • Monolithic
  • SOA
  • Microservices
  • CQRS
  • Event Sourcing
  • Serverless

10. The Start of Your Backend Journey — Node.js and NPM

Screen with some Backend Javascript, Node and SQL code.

There’s no JavaScript backend developer without Node.js and NPM.

The Node.js runtime is the software stack responsible for installing your web service’s code, its dependencies, and running your service. Is an asynchronous event-driven JavaScript runtime, designed to build scalable network applications.

Used by companies such as Netflix, Uber, and NASA, it’s something a JavaScript backend developer should know this year.

NPM, is the Node Package Manager, responsible for handling, installing, and importing your Node.js-based libraries.

11. Message Broker

A message broker is a part of the software that allows systems, apps, and services to communicate with one another. A message broker is a module that converts the server’s formal messaging protocol into the client’s formal messaging protocol (receiver). You can learn to use one of the provided message brokers in a future project.

12. Learn the Fundamentals of Web Security

An hacker sit on a desk, in a dark room with some blue lights and 3 monitors in front of him.

Unfortunately, the world is full of bad people ready to steal and use your data, and that of your customers. Knowing how to properly store and secure data and communications, is key for a backend developer.

Understand the fundamentals of web security and how to handle private information the right way:

  • CORS.
  • Basic Hashing.
  • Authentication.

Those are only some of the concepts you’ll work with while developing your backends and securing your API endpoints.

13. Containerization

Containerization is the packaging of software code with all required components, such as frameworks, libraries, and other dependencies, in order to create services that are isolated from one another in a container. Backend developers use containerization to make it easier to move or execute containers depending of their infrastructure or environment. Docker is one of the most commonly used containers that you should learn.

14. Design Patterns

Design Patterns are developed answers to a common set of issues that can arise during the development of a web application. It defines a common solution to such repeated problems. The following is a list of different design patterns that you should be familiar of.

  • Singleton
  • Factory
  • Observer
  • Decorator
  • Adapter
  • Template Method
  • Mediator
  • Composite
  • Facade
  • Iterator
  • Proxy

15. Authentication Method

Authentication methods are used to verify a user’s or device’s identity in order to gain access to resources, data, or applications. The authentication phase provides the security system with a user identity. Backend developers employ a variety of techniques, including:

16. WebHook

A webhook, often known as a reverse API, is a method for an app to give real-time data to other apps. Webhooks, unlike APIs, do not require a request to be sent after a response. Instead, webhooks provide data as soon as it becomes available, without the need for a request or specific callbacks. The webhook’s fundamental characteristic makes it useful for both users and providers.

17. WebSocket

The WebSocket API is a reducing technology that allows a two-way interactive communication session to be established between a user’s browser and a server. You can use this API to send messages to a server and obtain event-driven responses instead of asking the service. A WebSocket is a persistent link between a client and a server. It uses a TCP/IP socket connection to create a full-duplex, bi-directional communication channel over HTTP. Simply put, it’s a thin, lightweight layer over TCP that allows subprotocols to be used to lodge messages.

18. Learn by Doing: Create Projects

There’s no better way to retain notions than doing and solving problems.
Sometimes, finding backend projects to practice sounds hard though.

Just remember: backends are mainly comprised of APIs and Data Exchange, any project including those two domains, will do the job.

18. Pick a JavaScript Backend Framework

Graphic with a laptop, the client, a server and a database, used to demonstrate how backend and fronted communication work

Choosing a JavaScript framework will introduce lots of commodities in your workflows.

Backend frameworks introduce things such as SSG, SSR, or utilities to speed up your development.

Before digging into a JavaScript backend framework is key to understand what those terms mean:

  • SSG -> Static Site Generation.
  • SSR -> Server-Side Rendering.
  • CSR -> Client-Side Rendering.

Learn more about backend rendering methods on YouTube.

Backend frameworks are usually based on front-end counterparts, such as React and Vue, strictly connecting your backend to your front-end.

There are many popular JS backend frameworks, such as:

  • React/NextJS.
  • Vue/NuxtJS.
  • Gatsby.

19. React-Based Backend Frameworks: Next.js and Gatsby


Next js logo

React-based and Open-source, Next.js brings hybrid Static and Server-Side rendering to your backend development toolbox.

Learn React:
Learn Next:

Originally developed by, you might want to explore their free hosting services as well.


Gatsby JavaScript Library Logo

Gatsby is also a React-based open-source framework for creating websites.

Specialize in Static Websites such as Blogs and homepages.
Amazingly fast, gives you 2500+ plugins to kickstart your backend.

Learn Gatsby:

Vue.js Based Backend Framework: Nuxt.js

Vue.js logo

Based on Vue.js, Nuxt.js is the Next.js counterpart (you don’t say?).

Modular, performant, and easy-to-use Nuxt.js implements Server Side and static rendering to your workflow.

  1. Learn Vue.js on YouTube.
  2. Learn Nuxt.js on YouTube.

20. Decentralize Your Backend With Web3.0

The word blockchain. Distributed systems are the new backend systems.

Learn Web 3.0 and get paid.

If you want to take a step further, I suggest you explore the potentialities of Blockchain and Web3.0 development.

Resources to Learn Backend Development

Full Stack Web Development Course — Node.js + HTML/CSS/JS – Coding Ninjas

Intro to Backend – Udacity Free Courses

Backend Web Development with Python – Full Course – Freecodecamp

Complete Backend Development 2022 Bundle – Python Roadmap – Udemy

Back-End Engineer – Codecademy

Why choose a Backend Job

This profession is always in high demand and transversal but there are also other reasons to try to become a back-end developer:


He is a high-level professional figure in great demand by companies, especially in the banking-fintech, insurance, retail, and e-commerce sectors.


It is a job that can be carried out in a smart working model, remotely, and it is not uncommon to get a job for an international company also based in the United States which, however, leaves the freedom to work from wherever you want in the world (as long as they are equipped with excellent Internet connection);

Key resource. Because he knows the essential structure of computer programs and systems, a good backend developer can become indispensable and in some cases even difficult to replace in a company that appreciates his skills and competencies.

An indispensable resource for any type of company. Every company, every multinational, and even every startup needs back-end developers: learning one of the languages ​​mentioned above is an investment with a guaranteed return.

Backend Developers: Roles and Responsibilities

  • The job of the back-end developer is to analyze the website’s goals and provide effective solutions.
  • Storing data and making sure it is visible to the users who have permission to see it
  • Responsible for the development of payment processing systems, including accepting data and securely storing it.
  • Manage APIs resources that work across devices
  • He or she could be a part of the system design or data science analysis.
  • Developers are in charge of structuring the logic of the system, which works on a variety of devices.
  • To make programming easier, the back-end developer must also be involved in the building of frameworks and architecture.
  • Back-end web developers should be able to write algorithms and address system issues.

How you can become a Backend Developer

If you have studied Computer subjects in your degree program then this is best for you:

 …………………… often look for young graduates in all Engineering, Mathematics, Physics and Statistics courses: these degree programs provide the foundation to quickly enter the world of programming.

Those who want to pursue this career can also learn to program self-taught: to date, there are numerous online courses such as this one on Udemy……………….

Earning oF a Backend Web Developer

Due to their more specific tasks and skills, a backend developer is among the highest-paid figures in the hi-tech and IT sector. The average salary, for figures with at least a few years of experience, can be around 34 thousand Euros gross per year. But if you are a junior, in any case, the basic salary is that provided for either by the national metalworking collective agreement or for the Tertiary and Commerce sector with net salaries of around 1300 Euros per month. Companies like Google, Amazon, and Facebook also offer very high salaries: but the competition to grab a job is very high.

Points to remember

To make a good impression and get an interview as a backend developer, you need to show what you are capable of. In this specific case, knowing how to solve problems and identify bugs or system errors within databases. Logical reasoning and knowledge of programming languages ​​and environments are, as in any job related to computer development, indispensable.

Training for a Backend Web Developer

To enter the world of IT development, skills and knowledge are required which can be obtained first of all with a degree in the IT area. A three-year course is a must; a specialization allows you to focus your learning path on more limited elements, gradually enhancing the practical application of knowledge.

A good opportunity will certainly be the moment of university internship, useful to bring aspiring backend developers to the world that awaits them once they have completed their studies.

But good preparation is not based on a limited period: once the academic path is finished, continuous training will be required, connected to the need to stay up to date on news and developments that the IT world is experiencing. This area, in particular, is in fact among the most dynamic; therefore it is necessary to remain trained and ready to welcome new languages ​​and mechanisms. The greater this commitment, the easier it will be to adapt and be in line with the market.

One method to make this advice concrete can be to use online courses: platforms such as …………… or ………………..are excellent starting points. They can then be associated with practical exercises that can vary in difficulty based on the path you are facing. For example, offers opportunities to take inspiration from others’ projects and practices.

Also in this vein, it can be interesting to take part in open-source projects, such as FOSS on Github. They will be perfect training gyms to grow and confront you with interesting and stimulating initiatives.

Frequently Asked Question About Backend Developer

  • What are the soft skills needed to be successful as a back-end developer?

Ans: Back-end developers must be well-organized and thorough in their work. They should be innovative, problem-solvers, and able to stay calm and focused under pressure. Excellent communication skills, both verbal and written, are also required.

  • Which computer languages and tools are most helpful as a back-end developer?

Ans: PHP, Ruby, Python, and Java are examples of server-side languages that back-end developers should be familiar with. It is necessary to have a working knowledge of database tools such as MySQL, Oracle, and SQL Server. A back-end developer’s experience with Linux is a major benefit. Working knowledge of PHP frameworks like Zend and Symfony, as well as version control software like SVN and Git, is also beneficial.

  • What is the difference between a front-end developer, a back-end developer, and a full-stack developer?

Ans: The appearance of a web application is most important to front-end developers. The graphic and creative components of web design appeal to front-end engineers. The reasoning behind the website is created by back-end developers. Programming and working with data are two things that back-end developers appreciate. “Jacks of all trades” are full-stack developers. Developers that work on both the front end and back end of a web application are known as full-stack developers.

  • How can I advance my career as a back-end developer?

Ans: It’s important to stay current with new and developing technology in web application development if you want to succeed as a back-end developer. Back-end developers should learn at least one programming language and expand their understanding of front-end development. It’s also essential to develop your communication and leadership abilities.

  • What is the job outlook for backend developers?

Ans: In the future years, the demand for back-end developers will continue to rise. Back-end developers will be in great demand to develop and manage web applications as more companies conduct business online.

  • Can Back End Developer work from home?

Ans: Depending on their current job assignments and company policy, back-end developers may be able to work from home on occasion.


  • Back end development refers to server-side development
  • Back-end developer skills include Database and cache, Development Languages, Server, API (REST, SOAP), and Server.
  • Backend web developers should be able to understand the goals and provide effective solutions.
  • A front-end developer should know HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, while a back-end web developer should know the database, server, API, etc.
  • While Front-end development cannot be done on its own, Backend web development can be.

Happy Learning.. 😃

About us: Codelivly is a platform designed to help newbie developers to find the proper guide and connect to training from basics to advance.

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