Android developer roadmap 2022: The Android ecosystem is always advancing: new libraries and materials are released every day with the goal of speeding up development and making our lives as developers easier.
Android is an open-source operating system based on the Linux kernel that runs on smartphones, tablets, and other mobile devices. It was also created for smart watches and Android TV. Each one has its own user interface. Android is one of the most popular smartphone operating systems. Android OS was created by Android Inc., which was purchased by Google in 2005. Various Android applications, such as games, music players, and cameras, are developed for these cellphones. There are over 3.3 million apps in the Google Play Store. On a worldwide scale, Android still reigns supreme. Android is used by around 75% of the world’s population, whereas iOS is used by 15%. It is an operating system with a large app market.
Android Developer Roadmap 2022 suggests learning paths to understanding Android development. You can read the roadmap following the line path in the middle of the map.
Why Android? (Decide the Goal First?)
So, before diving into the Android Roadmap in its entirety, one needs have a clear aim in mind as to why they want to study Android. Is it for your academic projects in college? Is it for your long-term career, or is it just for fun? or do you want to create a business by developing your own apps? So first make a clear goal. Why do you want to learn Android? For example, if you want to learn Android for your college Academic projects then it’s enough to just learn the beginner things in Android. Similarly, if you want to build your long term career then you should learn the professional or advanced things also. So it’s on your hand and it’s your decision why you want to learn Android.
How to Learn Android?
In Android, programming is done in two languages JAVA or Kotlin and XML(Extension Markup Language). The XML file (as a front-end) deals with design, presentation, layouts, blueprints, and so on, whereas the JAVA or KOTLIN file (as a back-end) deals with button functionality, variables, storage, and so on (as a back-end). And for an Android newbie, the most perplexing issue is deciding between Java and Kotlin. So let me begin by attempting to resolve the ambiguity.
Java or Kotlin?
Java is the official language for developing Android apps, and as a result, it is also the most popular. Many of the apps in the Play Store are written in Java, which is also Google’s most widely supported programming language.
Kotlin is a cross-platform programming language that may be used as an alternative to Java for Android App Development. It has also been introduced as a secondary “official” Java language in 2017. The only sizable difference is that Kotlin removes the superfluous features of Java such as null pointer exceptions. It also removes the necessity of ending every line with a semicolon. In short, Kotlin is much simpler for beginners to try as compared to Java and it can also be used as an “entry point” for Android App Development.
|So my recommendation for a beginner is to go with Java first, then jump to Kotlin. Why Kotlin? Because Google has already declared Kotlin as the first-class language. And then Why Java? So in order to get the most out of Kotlin, we must have a knowledge of Java. So start with the Java basics then the Kotlin basics then go for Android Studio.|
Android Development Roadmap
Start with the Overview of Android. Read some android related blogs and also research some Android-related things. For example read blogs on Introduction to Android Development, History of Android, Different Versions of Android, and also topics like Why Kotlin will replace Java for Android App Development, etc. etc. and make a complete mind makeup to start your journey on Android. Make yourself self-motivated to learn Android and build some awesome projects on Android. Do it regularly and also start learning one by one new concept on Android. It will be very better to join some workshops or conferences on Android before you start your journey. Make your goal clear and move on toward your goal.
One may consider this step as a prerequisite. Learn these programming languages before you start learning Android.
- Java is a general-purpose, statically typed, object-oriented programming language designed to be used in conjunction with the Java Virtual Machine (JVM).
- Android is Google’s mobile operating system, used for programming or developing digital devices (Smartphones, Tablets, Automobiles, TVs, Wear, Glass, IoT).
- XML is the language used for Developing Android User Interface.Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a flexible, structured document format that defines human- and machine-readable encoding rules.
After Google Io 2019, Kotlin Is the preferred and Official Language for Android Development.
Let’s Have Deeper Look
Java was Android’s preferred language for a decade before being supplanted by Kotlin in 2019.
It’s an open-source, object-oriented, class-based programming language.
Although it’s old, there are reasons it was one of the most popular programming languages:
- Works on almost every system
- Used for websites and mobile apps
- Open source
- Available public fields
For a junior developer, learning Java would be a great skill to possess but it isn’t necessary.
Let’s turn our attention to the other language.
As the official Android development language, Kotlin has replaced Java. There are no surprises. JetBrains created it in 2011, and it has been in continuous development since then.
Here are the main characteristics of Kotlin:
- Concise language
- Combines features of both object-oriented and functional programming
- Used for backend, iOS, android and web apps.
Final verdict: Kotlin beats Java.
Once you’ve decided on a language it’s time to get a deeper understanding of what an app actually is.
2) Android Studio
It’s better to know your tools before you are going to use it. Android Studio is the official Integrated Development Environment for Google’s Android operating system, built on JetBrains’ IntelliJ IDEA software and designed specifically for Android development.
- File Structure:
- AndroidManifest.xml file
- Java file
- Drawable file
- Layout file
- mipmap file
- colors.xml file
- strings.xml file
- styles.xml file
- build.gradle(Module: app) file
- Android Studio Overview:
- Create a new project
- Reopen, close, save the project
- Create a new activity, classes, drawable resource files
- Run the app on AVD of Emulator or in a real device etc.
3) Android Components
There are some necessary building blocks that an Android application consists of. These loosely coupled components are bound by the application manifest file which contains a description of each component and how they interact.
- Activity life cycle
- Handle Activity State Changes
- Understand Tasks and Back Stack
- Processes and Application Lifecycle
- Types of Android Services
- The Life Cycle of Android Services
- Content Provider:
- Content URI
- Operations in Content Provider
- Working of the Content Provider
- Creating a Content Provider
- Broadcast Receiver:
- Implicit Broadcast Exceptions
4) Get familiar with the anatomy of an app
Automotive engineers can’t make a car without knowing which parts it consists of.
The same goes for android developers.
Let’s explore the components used to construct an app.
Looking at an app screen is the greatest approach to understand an activity. One activity is represented by one app screen, and vice versa. It’s a standalone app functionality module that may be reused in other apps.
While activities make up a single UI screen, fragments make up parts of an activity.
You can look at it as an activity broken into parts.
They’re a more efficient means of displaying user interface. They’re also useful when you need to reuse an interface across many devices, such as tablets.
In the image, we can clearly see activity being a container for fragments.
Think of intents as links between activities. They enable you to go from one activity to another or from one screen to another.
We have 3 different types of intents:
Explicit intent- requests launch of an activity by referencing its class name
implicit intent-requests launch of an activity without needing the class name
Broadcast intent- sends intents to all apps that are broadcast receivers
These are all the processes without a user interface.
We have 2 types of services:
- Background services
- Foreground services
Background services are useful when the app needs to continue performing tasks even though the user’s not using them.
Foreground services can be engaged with, such as a notification received while listening to music that can be used to operate the app without requiring an interface.
There’s an important file that lists all the major app parts. It’s called the AndroidManifest.xml. It lists components such as:
- Broadcast receivers
It’s the root of every android project set.
Resource files contain resources such as strings, fonts, colors, and images. You can use them for creating the user interface together with the representation of the user interface layouts.
5) Simple UI Design
After you got an idea about the different components of Android then start exploring some simple UI design which is given below.
- Explore different layouts:
- View Elements:
- Intent Filter
6) Complex UI Design
Once you have a command on simple UI design then solely move to the complex UI design part such as:
- Bottom Sheets
- Navigation Drawer
- Material Design
- Some inserting Animations
In Android, there are three types of the storage system:
- Shared Preferences
- File System
A set of libraries that aid in the development of robust, tested, and maintained apps. Begin with classes for controlling the lifespan of your user interface components and data persistence.
The main parts of Architecture are:
- Code Architecture
- Dependency Injection
- Quality Assurance
- Code Architecture
The Model-View-Controller (MVC) architectural pattern divides an application into three logical components: model, view, and controller. Each of these components is designed to handle specific parts of application development.
The Model–view–presenter (MVP) architectural pattern is a descendant of the model–view–controller (MVC) architectural pattern, which is mostly used to create user interfaces. In MVP, the presenter takes on the role of the “middleman.” In MVP, the presenter is in charge of all presentation logic.
The Mode-View-ViewModel pattern employs Data Binding to ensure that each view contains precisely one variable, vm, which stands for ViewModel. The idea is that the ViewModel should contain all of the information needed to display the View. A single view model can be shared by multiple views. This allows functionality to be reused for a different layout.
- Dependency Injection
Dependency injection is a technique whereby one object supplies the dependencies of another object. A dependency is an object that can be used. An injection is the passing of a dependency to a dependent object that would use it.
- Quality Assurance
Quality assurance is a method of avoiding problems when delivering products or services to clients by preventing faults and defects in manufactured products.
- Debug/ Release Configuration
One of the most important skills of a developer is debugging skills. So the developer must learn these things:
- Error Handling
- Memory Profiling
12) Memory Leaks
- Cause of memory leaks
- Detecting and fixing memory leaks
13) Third-Party Libraries
- Image Loading Libraries
- Dependency Injection
14) Android Jetpack
On its official site, it says Android Jetpack is a set of libraries, tools, and architectural guidance to help make it quick and easy to build great Android apps. It provides common infrastructure code so you can focus on what makes your app unique.
- AppCompat library
- Architecture components,
- Animation and transitions
- Android Ktx
15) Android Architecture
The three famous architecture in the Android world are:
- MVVM (Model–View–ViewModel)
- MVI (Model-View-Intent)
- MVP (Model View Presenter)
- FCM (Firebase Cloud Messaging)
- Remote Config
- App Indexing
17) Unit Testing
- Local Unit Testing
- Instrumentation Testing
- Encrypt / Decrypt
19) App Release
- Signed APK
- Play Store
20) Keep Practicing and Read Some Android Tips
“Practice makes a man perfect” which tells the importance of continuous practice in any subject to learn anything.
- Learn Version Control: If you want to work as a professional android developer for a multinational company (such as Google, Facebook, or Amazon), you should learn how to use a version control system like Git. Because all participants in a good organization contribute through version control.
- Carefully use Admob API: Admob API might be a little difficult at times. You should carefully read the terms and conditions. Before you monetize your app, you should do some research on its monetization plans.
- Also Learn DS and Algo: In android development, DS and Algo is a very very beneficial skil. If you know DS and Algo, then you can easily think that what task is to do or in which time. So, DS and Algo is really a plus point.
Resources To Learn Android Development
- Installation – If you have never done Android development, first setup your Android environment by following these Android Setup Slides
- Programming – If you are starting with no programming knowledge, we recommend you learn Java first (see resources in next section)
- First App – Consider starting by building a simple todo app by following these slides. Alternately try this video tutorial that will guide you through the basics of an Android app. I recommend that you not only watch the video but repeat what he is doing simultaneously.
- Finding Solutions – Learn how to search for solutions before you ask questions; check sources like StackOverflow and the cliffnotes for answers. Learn how to debug your code. This means using LogCat and reading stack traces, also learning how to use breakpoints.
- Reference Book – A great companion book is The Busy Coder’s Guide to Android Development. If you don’t want or can’t buy the book, consider looking at its many code examples available for free
If you never programmed at all before or if you are interested in starting with the basics, spend the first few months just on learning Java. Learn the syntax and understand how everything works. You’ll need to be able to create classes, create and call methods, use interfaces as well as know how inheritance works, before you can go to the next step. These are the basics of Java, and you’ll use them extensively when developing Android apps. Helpful resources for learning Java:
- Start with these Java Interactive Guides
- CodePath Java for Android Slides
- Programming by doing Java – Great step-by-step guide
- Head First Java Book
- The Java help subreddit
- The official Oracle Java tutorials
- TutsPlus Java Overview
- Learn Java Online – Interactive Java Tutorial
- Free Java Book – Solid online book
- Udemy Free Java Course – Free videos to learn Java
- CodingBat Java Exercises – Exercises to practice Java
- Best Ways to Learn Java Overview – Overview article
- Java Language Fundamentals
- Java: A Beginners Guide
- TutorialsPoint Java Guide
- Java tutorial – A programming community & a great place to find the best online programming courses and tutorials.
- Best Java tutorials & books – Regularly curated & updated list of the best Java tutorials, courses & books.
- Most Recommended Java Tutorials – Check out the best java tutorials available online and recommended by experts.
Be sure to check out these particular Java topics as well:
- Dealing with Exceptions
- Understanding Threads and Runnables
- Using Interfaces
- Using Event Listeners
- Creating your own Callbacks and Listeners
Understanding HTTP and APIs
In addition to understanding Java and OOP, most Android development requires the use of data from a server-side database and as such requires you to have a solid conceptual understanding of RESTful APIs, consuming HTTP endpoints and parsing JSON responses. Here are a few resources to get started:
- Beginners Guide to REST
- Another Guide to REST
- Documentation for Twitter API
- JSON Overview Tutorial
- Parsing JSON in Java
You also need to know how to understand XML since a great deal of Android development takes place in XML files:
Once you understand Java, OOP (Classes, Inheritance, etc), XML and APIs with JSON, you now have the proper context to enter the world of Android development.
Practical Tips for Android Development
Understanding the concepts above is a good thing because it allows you search for practical ways to achieve something. Almost everything you can think of doing has already been tried and documented by someone else. You just need to know how to find it. Which leads me to my next set of things you may consider to learn first:
- Learn how to search — We cannot stress this enough. If you are stuck or in doubt, search for your question on Google. And most of all: Search before you ask.
- Learn how to debug your code There is a surprisingly high number of developers who do not debug their code at all and can’t really understand their code’s log. Refer to our comprehensive debugging your exceptions to understand how to investigate and solve your own issues.
In terms of designing a good looking app, here are some links that will help you start looking at ideas and acquiring design assets like icons.
There are various sites that provide icons, colors or other assets for your apps:
- MaterialDesignIcons – Good icons for material designed apps
- IconFinder – Excellent source of free to use graphics
- iconmonstr – Great source of icons with customized shapes and colors
- NounProject – Another source of free icons and graphics
- Icon Generators – Easily generate icons for use in your apps
- MaterialPalette – Easy color palette selection for your apps.
- Android Cheatsheet – Great summary of design specs and dimensions
There are various guides that provide insight into the design principles for Android:
- Android Design Principles
- Material Design Primer – Walks you through the various elements of a modern material design for Android. “Material Design” is the latest approach to designing beautiful Android apps.
There are various sites that provide inspiration by showcasing beautiful modern app design:
- UI-Oh-My – Great resource for seeing screenshots of apps.
- inspired-ui – Endless list of beautiful UI design
- mobilepatterns – Common screen patterns neatly organized
- pttrns – List of android screens in categories
- androidniceties – Blog of beautiful interfaces
- androidux – Explores common patterns for UX
- androidpatterns – UI patterns organized by questions, such as “How can I let users manage their accounts?”
Note: Listed below are only a few courses provided by each platform. Please visit their site for a full catalog.
Android Things courses – Listed a few courses | Visit site for full catalog
CodingWithMitch courses – Listed a few courses | Visit site for full catalog
- Jetpack Compose MVVM for Beginners
- Clean Architecture
- UI Testing with Jetpack and AndroidX
- UI Testing for Beginners
- Model-View-Intent (MVI) Architecture
- Powerful Android Apps with Jetpack Architecture
- Unit Testing
- Dagger2.2+ on Android
- REST API with MVVM and Retrofit2
- Local Database Cache with REST API
- SQLite for Beginners 2019
- Audio Streaming on Android
Coding in Flow courses – Listed a few courses
Udacity courses – Listed a few courses
- Developing Android Apps with Kotlin
- Advanced Android with Kotlin
- Firebase in a Weekend for Android by Google FREE COURSE
Udemy courses – Listed a few courses
- The Complete Android 10 & Kotlin Development Masterclass
- Complete Kotlin Coroutines development course
- Android Multithreading Masterclass
- To-Do App & Clean Architecture -Android Development – Kotlin
- The Complete Android + Kotlin Developer Course
- The Complete Android Oreo Developer Course – Build 23 Apps!
- Android Developers
- Jovche Mitrejchevski
- Coding in Flow
- Awesome Dev Notes
- Curated Reality
- AlexZh Dev
- Rahul Pandey
- Code Palace
- Philipp Lackner
- Simplified Coding
- Reso Coder
- Tihomir RAdeff
- Android Dialogs
- Hey! Let’s Code
- AppDevNotes-Learn Android Development
- EDMT Dev
- PRABEESH R K
- Leland Richardson
- Mike Johnston
- Cody Engel
- TVAC Studio
- Aws Rh
- Master Coding
- Kotlin Mumbai
- Cheesy Code
- All Techies
Free Resources for Learning Android Development
Best Free courses for Android Development provided by Google:
- Learn User Interface: https://www.udacity.com/course/android-basics-user-interface–ud834
- Learn User Input: https://www.udacity.com/course/android-basics-user-input–ud836
- Multiscreen Apps: https://www.udacity.com/course/android-basics-multiscreen-apps–ud839
- Networking Course: https://www.udacity.com/course/android-basics-networking–ud843
- Data Storage Course: https://www.udacity.com/course/android-basics-data-storage–ud845
- Developing Android Apps Course: https://www.udacity.com/course/new-android-fundamentals–ud851
- Advanced Android App Development: https://www.udacity.com/course/advanced-android-app-development–ud855
- Learn Firebase: https://www.udacity.com/course/firebase-in-a-weekend-by-google-android–ud0352
- Material Design Course: https://www.udacity.com/course/material-design-for-android-developers–ud862
You will learn all the basics + start developing advance android app development with all above courses, which are officially provided by the google professionals.
How to Earn with Android Development During College Time or as a Side Hustle
There are lots of way to earn with android app development skill. If you are a college student then it will be amazing, because you can start earning during your college time.
- Publish apps + admob: If you publish apps on the Google Play Store with admob advertisements, you can make a lot of money. Admob advertising can help you make money.
- Publish apps+ In-App Purchase: You can publish you app in playstore and earn with In-App Purchase.
- Admob+ In-Ap Purchase: You can earn with integrating both In-App Purchase and admob ads in your app and publish it on playstore.
- Freelancing: Nowadays there is a huge demand of android app developers on various freelancing websites. You can make apps for peoples on their demand on freelancing websites.
- Internships: You can do internships as a android developer during college time and earn.
Android Developer Salary
The estimated total pay for a Android Developer is $100,522 per year in the United States area, with an average salary of $89,484 per year.
Frequently Asked Questions
- How long does it take to build an android app?
On average, it takes 3 to 4 months to build an android app. Some of the complex apps need more than 6 months.
You can also take this time as the duration of the Android Development Roadmap.
Building an application, however, is dependent on developer teams and team size. Meanwhile, some Android applications may be created in a single day.
- Can we build applications from python?
Yes, we can build applications from python. Python is a versatile language and it is cross-platform which we can build on iOS and android.
- Can Python be used for mobile app development?
Python doesn’t have built-in mobile development capabilities. But there are some packages to create mobile applications like Kivy, Beeware’s Toga library.
Thus, with the help of libraries, we can use them to create mobile applications.
This was the complete roadmap for becoming a professional android developer. It will help you for becoming an android app developer. May you will like this article.
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